Neutrino Observatories

Neutrino Observatories

Astrophysical neutrinos come from many kinds of sources and span many orders of magnitude in energy. Just as for photons, detection techniques vary with energy. I will start by discussing detection of "low energy" (solar and supernova) neutrinos, then will move upwards in energy (atmospheric and cosmic neutrinos), and then (if time) have a quick look at the exotic very high and very low ends of the natural neutrino spectrum.

General Neutrino Information

The Ultimate Neutrino Page has links having to do with many aspects of neutrino physics and astrophysics. Another of my favorite neutrino pages (primarily focusing on oscillation physics, but full of links to all sorts of neutrino-related things) is Maury Goodman's Neutrino Oscillation Industry page.

Solar Neutrinos (MeV)

Supernova Neutrinos (tens of MeV)

When a core collapse supernova occurs, only about 1% of the gravitational binding energy of the resulting neutron star goes into electromagnetic energy and kinetic energy of an expanding remnant; the rest goes into neutrinos. Many current detectors are sensitive to a burst of neutrinos from a supernova in our galaxy. Some links:

Atmospheric Neutrinos (GeV)

The main detectors which observed atmospheric neutrinos and elucidated the atmospheric neutrino anomaly are Super-K, Soudan 2 (an iron calorimeter detector in Minnesota), and MACRO, (a detector with sensitivity to upward-going neutrino-induced muons in Gran Sasso, Italy.)

Cosmic Neutrinos (hundreds of GeV, TeV and beyond)

Detectors aiming to see very high energy neutrinos from such exotic objects as active galactic nuclei and gamma ray bursters generally take the form of long strings of phototubes viewing a very large volume of water or ice. The list includes: Detectors whose primary purpose is ultra high energy cosmic rays, yet which have some sensitivity to cosmic neutrinos via imaging of horizontal air showers are:

Some Other Links