Astrophysical neutrinos come from many kinds of sources and span many
orders of magnitude in energy. Just as for photons, detection
techniques vary with energy. I will start by discussing detection of
"low energy" (solar and supernova) neutrinos, then will move upwards
in energy (atmospheric and cosmic neutrinos), and then (if time) have
a quick look at the exotic very high and very low ends of the natural
General Neutrino Information
The Ultimate Neutrino Page
has links having to do with many aspects of neutrino physics and
astrophysics. Another of my favorite neutrino
pages (primarily focusing on oscillation physics, but full of links to all
sorts of neutrino-related things) is
Maury Goodman's Neutrino Oscillation Industry page.
Solar Neutrinos (MeV)
- John Bahcall's solar neutrino page has a wealth of information and links about solar neutrinos.
- Here are links to home pages of existing and planned solar neutrino detectors.
- The recently past, current and near future generation includes:
- The radiochemical detectors: Homestake (chlorine, USA), Gallex/GNO (gallium chloride, Italy), SAGE (liquid gallium, Russia).
- Super-Kamiokande (Super-K), a water Cherenkov detector in Mozumi, Japan.
- The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a heavy water detector in Sudbury, Canada.
- Borexino, a low energy threshold scintillator detector in Gran Sasso, Italy. KamLAND is a similar experiment which is using reactor neutrinos to probe solar neutrino oscillation physics (and which
may have some direct sensitivity to solar neutrinos, too).
- Information about the next generation of proposed solar neutrino
detectors aiming for real-time detection of the low energy (but high
flux) solar pp neutrinos can be found here.
Supernova Neutrinos (tens of MeV)
When a core collapse supernova occurs, only about 1% of the
gravitational binding energy of the resulting neutron star goes into
electromagnetic energy and kinetic energy of an expanding remnant; the
rest goes into neutrinos. Many current detectors are sensitive to a
burst of neutrinos from a supernova in our galaxy. Some links:
- SN1987A for
which 19 neutrinos were observed by Kamiokande II and IMB.
SuperNova Early Warning System (SNEWS), a project I am involved in,
which aims to provide an early warning of a galactic
supernova to astronomers if a neutrino burst occurs.
- My NeSS '02 talk on future supernova detection which gives
an overview of both current and future supernova neutrino detectors.
Atmospheric Neutrinos (GeV)
The main detectors which observed atmospheric neutrinos and elucidated
the atmospheric neutrino anomaly
Soudan 2 (an iron
calorimeter detector in Minnesota), and MACRO, (a detector
with sensitivity to upward-going neutrino-induced muons in Gran Sasso,
Cosmic Neutrinos (hundreds of GeV, TeV and beyond)
Detectors aiming to see very high energy neutrinos from such exotic
objects as active galactic nuclei and gamma ray bursters generally
take the form of long strings of phototubes viewing a very large
volume of water or ice. The list includes:
Detectors whose primary purpose is ultra high energy cosmic rays, yet
which have some sensitivity to cosmic neutrinos via imaging of horizontal
air showers are:
Some Other Links